Glass tempering is a process that involves heating sheets of glass to a high temperature and then rapidly cooling them to increase their strength and durability. This process is important because it makes the glass stronger and more resistant to breaking or shattering, which can be especially important in applications where the glass may be subjected to high levels of stress or impact, such as in car windows, storefront windows, and shower doors.

The tempering process begins by heating the glass to a high temperature, typically around 1200-1400 degrees Fahrenheit, in a furnace. The glass is then rapidly cooled using a process called quenching, which involves blowing air or water over the surface of the glass to cool it quickly. This rapid cooling process causes the surface of the glass to cool faster than the center, creating a state of tension in the glass. This tension makes the glass stronger and more resistant to breaking or shattering.

In addition to increasing the strength and durability of the glass, the tempering process also makes the glass safer to use. When tempered glass breaks, it shatters into small, round pieces rather than sharp shards, which reduces the risk of injury.

Overall, the glass tempering process is important because it improves the strength, durability, and safety of the glass, making it suitable for a wide range of applications.

As a result of its safety and strength, tempered glass is used in a variety of demanding applications, including passenger vehicle windows, shower doors, architectural glass doors, tables, refrigerator trays, mobile phone screen protectors, as a component of bulletproof glass, for diving masks, and various types of plates and cookware.


The most common type of safety glass is tempered glass, which is made by heating pre-cut panels of glass to about 650 C (1200 F), then cooling them rapidly through a process called ‘quenching.’

By cooling the outer surfaces of the panel more quickly than the center, quenching puts the surfaces and edges of the glass in compression and the center of the glass in tension.

In addition to making tempered glass four to five times stronger than conventional annealed glass, reheating and rapid quenching dramatically changes the break characteristics of the glass.

Broken Tempered Glass

shattered into thousands of tiny pebbles.



Fragmentation testing is required to determine that the glass product meets the minimum breakage particle requirements as specified for thermally toughened glass. 

Fragmentation Counting

The fragment count in the standardized fragmentation test 


The destructive test and the fragmentation due to breakage is the way to define the stress and safety level of the tempered glass. The fragmentation shows several things from the stresses, e.g. the stress level and the uniformity of the stresses.

Manual Fragmentation Analysis

Fragmentation analysis is a proven way to confirm the safety level of glass. In essence, when thermally strengthened glass fractures into smaller pieces, it is less dangerous. Depending on the glass thickness, several standards define the minimum number of fragments required for safety.

  1. Fragment counting should occur between 3 to 5 minutes after fracturing the glass. This is important because after a longer period of time, secondary cracks start to form.
  2. The counting area should be 50 x 50 mm, ± 1 mm.
  3. The chosen counting area should have the least number of fragments.
  4. All particles wholly contained within the area should be counted as one fragment.
  5. Particles which are partially within the area should be counted as 1/2 a fragment.

Manual counting

Area  of 50 x 50 mm, ± 1 mm.

The tempered glass fragmentation test gives good insight into the quality of the tempering process. 

We fabricate and temper flat glass to your specifications,meaning we can cut to precise measurements, drill, edge, and make any other necessary customizations to get started on your perfect piece of flat glass.

Glass Type:Tempered (or not), Heavy, Patterned, mirror, laminated and shower doors
Thicknesses (in/mm):1/8″ to 7/8″ (3mm to 22mm)
Not all thicknesses available in all glass types
Sizes: (approx.)Up to 80″ x 120″ (2000mm x 3000mm)
Shapes:Almost any shape
Edgework:Standard, flat, bevels and rounded edge
Holes and Slots:Cut by water jet or CNC, prior to tempering
Glass tempering:As little as 2” x 2”

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